Armenia is a mountainous country with elevations above sea level ranging from 379m to 4090m, and it combines elements of three geo-botanical regions: Caucasian, Iranian and Eastern Mediterranean. Various factors, such as the country's geographical situation and complex geomorphology, lead to there being a variety of landscapes and habitats from rocky semi-deserts and mountain steppes to mature mixed and deciduous forests and alpine meadows up to the snowline. Armenia also has numerous natural lakes (with Sevan being the largest in the entire Caucasus), rivers running down the mountain gorges, and a large system of artificial wetlands and reservoirs.
This, in turn, results in unusually rich diversity of flora and fauna in a relatively small country. Up to the present over 340 bird species have been recorded in Armenia, of which about 240 species breed here. Many of European bird species are represented in Armenia by particular subspecies, while almost all of the Caucasian specialities are habitually encountered during a spring-summer Birdwatching trip.
Some of these most sought-after birds are Caspian Snowcock, Caucasian Grouse, Armenian Gull, Radde's Accentor, Persian Wheatear and Semi-collared Flycatcher. Other interesting species for birdwatchers are Pygmy Cormorant, Marbled, Ferruginous and White-headed Ducks, White-tailed Plover, an excellent selection of raptors, Blue-cheeked Bee-eater, Bimaculated Lark, White-throated Robin, Finch's Wheatear, Menetries's, Upcher's and Green Warblers, Eastern and Western Rock Nuthatches, Wallcreeper, Grey-necked Bunting, Pale Rock Sparrow, Red-fronted Serin, Crimson-winged, Trumpeter and Mongolian Finches.
Situated on an important migration flyway Armenia offers superb opportunity to see, among many others, such species as Demoiselle Crane, Black-winged Pratincole, Broad-billed, Terek and Marsh Sandpipers, Greater Black-headed Gull, Calandra Lark, Moustached Warbler, and spectacular migration of eagles, harriers and buzzards.
The richness of birds in conjunction with the hospitality of the local people, numerous ancient historical and cultural monuments and some of the most impressive scenery in the Western Palaearctic, makes Armenia a worthwhile and rewarding destination for every birdwatcher.